The Political 


Questions and Answers about the Political Graveyard

  1. How and why did this site come to be?
  2. Why are cemeteries interesting?
  3. Why don't you think this is morbid?
  4. Why did you build a web site about cemeteries?
  5. Does a cemetery need politicians to be considered 'historic'?
  6. What is a "political graveyard"?
  7. Would you say the only good politician is a dead politician?
  8. What about politicians in Canada, or other countries?
  9. Why don't you include county sheriffs, city treasurers, and other local figures?
  10. How do you create and maintain the site?
  11. How do you decide whether to combine 'political families'?
  12. Where did you get all this information?
  13. With so much information coming from so many different sources, how to you verify its accuracy?
  14. Why do you include living persons in a Graveyard?
  15. Is your list of politicians complete?
  16. What does "presumed deceased" mean?
  17. What does "burial location unknown" mean?
  18. Do you accept suggestions of politicians to add to the database?
  19. Who cares about this stuff, anyway?
  20. How are you alphabetizing the index?
  21. May I put a link to The Political Graveyard on my own page?
  22. Do you have any advice for researching cemeteries?
  23. Do you have any advice for researching political figures?
  24. Who's in charge of and paying for this project?
  25. Who did the Political Graveyard logo?
  26. Who else helped out?

How and why did this site come to be? Many years ago, browsing in the biography section of the MSU Library, I came across an edition of the Biographical Directory of the American Congress (most recently retitled Biographical Directory of the United States Congress), which gives a little squib on everyone who had ever served in the U.S. House or Senate, as Vice President, or in the Continental Congress. I was intrigued to see that the specific place of burial was given for just about every deceased member. A few minutes' work revealed that eleven of Michigan's U.S. Senators were buried in Detroit's Elmwood Cemetery. The directory was a fabulous treasure trove of information about historic cemeteries in all parts of the country, across every period of U.S. history; I wished there was some way to organize the data by place of burial.

I didn't have the time or resources to do much with it back then, but in recent years, with help from Intranet and from Paul Haas, I've been able to convert this information into a Web resource.

But the idea for the site didn't just spring into being fully formed. It evolved from what is now my historic cemetery links page. It happened partly because I'm a database guy, and my first instinct when faced with any problem is to create a database. I also hoped to promote appreciation and preservation of historic cemeteries. The project is also a serendipitous overlap of many of my interests: in architecture, in politics, in history, in geographic variation, in place names, in personal names, and of course in cemeteries.

Why are cemeteries interesting? Cemeteries have always fascinated me, and I don't think of this as being at all morbid. A cemetery is an open-air reference library, a statuary park, a gallery of architectural styles, a carefully constructed model landscape, a repository of community memory, a complex cultural artifact. Cemeteries may change or even be uprooted, but usually they are much more stable than their surroundings, and hence can serve as a window on the past. Every cemetery or graveyard is different; those differences reflecting varieties of landscape, soil and water conditions, ethnicity, history, politics, economics, transportation, climate, attitudes toward death, and attitudes toward nature.

Why don't you think this is morbid? All history and all understanding and appreciation of the past and its lessons necessarily involves discussing the lives of people who are no longer living. We're so accustomed in this culture to the upbeat happy ending that we almost forget how every human biography really ends.

People who call the web site "morbid" are probably imagining that I am "into" death or that I see death in a weirdly positive light. That is the opposite of the truth. To me, every death, regardless how inevitable, is a loss to the world — a loss of love, a loss of experience, a loss of a witness to history.

Why did you build a web site about cemeteries?

I was very concerned about the physical neglect of historic cemeteries. Two of the nation's most important historic graveyards, Congressional Cemetery in Washington, and Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, had been abandoned to weeds and vandals; statuary was smashed, headstones knocked down and broken, mausoleums covered with spray-painted grafitti. I saw the beginnings of the same kind of neglect in local cemeteries, driven by cost-cutting, forgetfulness, and apathy. In cemeteries, neglect "gives permission" for vandalism. A lot of history was being lost.

What was needed, I thought, was to inspire public recognition and appreciation for historic resources, such as cemeteries, which exist in every community. Like politics, all historic preservation is local.

Being a political person, my own focus was on political history. And I remembered the strange discovery I had made many years earlier: the biographical directory of Congress, published from time to time since the early 20th century, lists the cemetery of burial for nearly every deceased member, even the most obscure one-termer.

I pictured someone — maybe one of my grad school classmates — putting together a public tour of a neglected historic cemetery, who might not realize that a U.S. Senator was buried there under a modest marker. Famous people, even politicians, often die forgotten or in obscurity. So here was a way to help: I could easily put together a database from the biographical directory, make a modest web site out of it, and indirectly promote some appreciation for the historic value of a local cemetery needing attention. It could be a resource site for preservationists.

In order to list where politicians were buried, first I needed a list of politicians. And in order to show their historic significance, I had to give details of their careers and offices held. And the more information I had, the more opportunities arose for cross-reference links, to take full advantage of the hypertext format. Before long, The Political Graveyard became the Internet's most comprehensive free biographical database of U.S. politicians.

Does a cemetery need politicians to be considered 'historic'? Of course not. And some burial sites are historically important even though the names of all the people interred there have been forgotten in time. What this database focuses on is a specific subcategory of historic cemeteries: the ones where members of the local elites were buried. The number of political figures in a cemetery is a rough and imperfect, but still valuable, measure of that cemetery's elite status.

Oftentimes, old elite cemeteries are the most interesting to visit. Given the power and resources of those who organized and maintained the burial ground over the years, you'll find the best materials, the gaudiest ornament, the most extensive and successful landscape design, the fanciest mausoleums. Usually, it's all relatively well preserved; when it's not, an important historic and community resource is being lost to neglect and vandalism.

Moreover, a cemetery may be significant specifically because of the importance of one or more of those buried there. I realize that most of the 217,078 people in the database (members of Congress, governors, diplomats, state senators, etc.) are obscure nobodies from today's perspective, but there are some whose grave sites might well be of interest simply because of who they were and what they did. Horace Greeley. Daniel Webster. John C. Calhoun. Aaron Burr. Sam Houston. And a good many others.

What is a "political graveyard"? The term "the political graveyard" has been in common use in the U.S. and Britain, apparently for decades. The earliest reference was in an 1872 speech, which is quoted at the bottom of every page on the site.

The term "the political graveyard" has been in common use in the U.S. and Britain, apparently for decades. The earliest reference was in an 1872 speech, which is quoted at the bottom of every page on the site.

It refers, collectively, to those ambitious candidates or ideas which didn't make it. For example: "the political graveyard is full of candidates who thought money could buy them victory," or "those two Senate bills are destined for the political graveyard." Secondarily, positions or institutions associated with political doom are often called political graveyards. For example: "that committee is a political graveyard for energy legislation," or "nobody has been able to use the city council as a stepping-stone to higher office; it's a political graveyard."

Where this term originated is less clear. I would welcome any insights anyone has to offer. The following is my best guess based on what I currently know:

It was a tradition, during campaign season in Louisiana and Florida, for partisans to set up pseudo-cemeteries in conspicuous locations, with cardboard gravestones announcing the impending defeat of the other side's candidates or issues. These displays were called political graveyards.

Does this still happen in Louisiana and Florida? Or anywhere else for that matter? Send me mail ( if you know more about this.

I already had a pretty clear sense of where I was headed with this project before I somehow hit on the idea of calling it The Political Graveyard.

Would you say the only good politician is a dead politician? By no means. I'm a small time politician myself, twice elected to my current job as county clerk and register of deeds. If anything, I think that a low regard for politicians only leads to worse leaders and bad outcomes. Political leaders are human beings and will naturally live up — or down — to our expectations of them.

What about politicians in Canada, or other countries? I did want to include Canadian figures, and I still hope to some day. I have even gathered some Canadian material, and others have offered their research. Unfortunately, there are a few problems which block progress on this.

Why don't you include county sheriffs, city treasurers, and other local figures? One of the less heralded glories of the American political system is the breadth of direct participation in elective politics. Other countries may have much higher voter turnouts than we do, as a percentage of the population, but I seriously doubt that any country in the history of the planet has ever had as many candidates and officeholders as we do. Counting federal, state, county, city, town, village, school district, and all the rest, there are an estimated half a million elected positions in this country. Here in Ann Arbor, Michigan, my personal vote helps fill nearly a hundred elected positions, including legislators, judges, university trustees, the school board, the library board, and on and on.

From a civics-textbook standpoint, this plethora is not necessarily a good thing. The multiplication of elective offices splinters accountability, leaving the voters with no one to blame for problems. Holders of important but little-understood positions, such as judgeships, may get endlessly re-elected on the strength of a familiar name despite poor performance. Voters have limited time and attention to devote to politics, and a bedsheet ballot covered in fine print wastes their patience and can frustrate the expression of political will.

I readily admit the policy implications; I have even raised these in my own campaigns for office. New Jersey surely did the right thing in 1947 by making the governor the only statewide elected official. But I also cherish the abundant and decentralized political history that this tradition of electing so many of our officials has generated, a history to which I have contributed in my small way, as a candidate and officeholder.

All that being said, I as one person cannot possibly document more than the tiniest fraction of that teeming mass of history. I do have to draw the line somewhere, and hence limit The Political Graveyard primarily to those who have participated in politics at the state and federal levels. Among local officials, all that I have chosen to include are mayors (or other chief elected official) of cities above a certain size.

How do you create and maintain the site? I maintain the database offline. I have written programs to generate the web pages from the database. Periodically, I re-run all the web pages, and replace the whole web site with a new version. The date of last revision appears in the footer at the bottom of every page.

The database itself is in MS-DOS; I use an old package called FoxPro, which itself is a knockoff of dBaseIII. I have more than two dozen different .DBF files, one for people, one for places, one for offices, one for cemeteries, etc., etc., all accessible through a data entry program I use to edit the data. I wrote the programming for the data entry screens and all the web page generaating programs, using the dBase/FoxPro programming language, which resembles Pascal. All told, I have more than 50,000 lines of code in this project.

(And no, I really don't have time or inclination to try to convert all this to a "more modern" format, as my computer-geek friends are constantly urging.)

How do you decide whether to combine 'political families'? The program does it for me. Each "family" is just the cluster of linked individuals, following all politician-to-politician links as far as they go. The program even assigns the family names and states of greatest activity. It works pretty well, if I say so myself.

The more critical question is the standard for coding a relation link between two political figures. Most everyone with American ancestors is related to some president at the tenth or twelfth cousin level — such a link would be nearly meaningless.

After studying the problem for a while, I came up with a rule for cousinships based on the idea of a minimum of 1/1000 common ancestry: first cousins are included up to seven times removed, second cousins up to five times removed, third cousins up to three times removed, and fourth cousins up to once removed. Fifth and more distant cousinships are not included (though there are still some in the database which predate this rule).

The 1/1000 (or really 1/1024) rule could also apply to direct ancestors: the 10th generation would be included, but not the 11th. But at this writing, the most remote ancestor in the entire database (out of over 4300 relation links) is five generations: great-great-great-grandfather.

I don't have a specific rule for relatives by marriage, but most of these are relatively close anyway, such as uncle by marriage, first cousin by marriage, etc.

I have learned a lot about kinship by doing this project: I had never heard of a "half uncle" or "double first cousin" before, and I didn't really understand what it meant for a cousin to be "removed". Nor did I realize that such cousin-removed relations are necessarily symmetrical: if Jack is your fourth cousin once removed, then you are also his fourth cousin once removed.

Where did you get all this information? The main source is the Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress (1989), but I have also obtained information from many other biographical compilations, from state legislative manuals, the Congressional Directory, newspaper obituaries, library vertical files, and the hundreds of genealogists and political historians who have shared their research with me. I will include a bibliography one of these days.

The Biographical Directory is now online at I have provided links to those biographical sketches for each person who has one.

With so much information coming from so many different sources, how to you verify its accuracy? Every bit of information that comes into my collection is identified as to source and rated either "tentatively confirmed" (e.g., directly from an authoritative source such as a government or cemetery record) or "unconfirmed" (just about anything else). Unconfirmed information includes, for example, information in the Congressional biography about offices other than Congress, because the dates are so often wrong. When there is doubt in my mind about something, I flag it for high-priority checking and confirmation. Of course the goal is to confirm everything — eventually.

I maintain a healthy skepticism toward all historical sources. Anything which is written or printed — or even carved in stone — may contain errors. I have seen the granite tombstone of a U.S. Secretary of the Treasury which has the wrong year of birth carved on it.

Therefore it is inescapable that the web site contains errors. It is a big collection, and there's no such thing as a big perfect jewel. I do constantly invite correction, and at least in theory, any error or wrong information is eventually going to be noticed and pointed out by someone. With traffic to the site running at about 30,000 file hits per day, the chances of an error being caught and reported to me is actually pretty significant, depending on the type of error.

What all this means is that the users of the site are taking part in its development. You and I are, in effect, working together to make it more complete and accurate. But that depends on you taking the time to let me know when you notice an inaccuracy.

Why do you include living persons in a Graveyard? I didn't think the lists of officeholders would be very useful if I omitted all the ones I didn't know for certain were deceased. Those born since 1901 who are not known to be dead are listed as "still living". I ask their indulgence.

Is your list of politicians complete? Complete? I'm afraid it is barely started!

I currently have online at least the name of everyone who served in the Presidency and Vice-Presidency, the Cabinet, the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Supreme Court, and as Governor of any state, up to about 1994. I also have almost all major U.S. diplomats, all of the members of the Confederate Congress, and many (but far from all) holders of major state positions like Attorney General and State Treasurer. The relative handful of people I have listed for other offices (state posts and mayoralties) are mostly people who also served in the positions just mentioned. I am working on expanding the number of state officials, mayors and delegates to national conventions who are listed.

What does "presumed deceased" mean? First of all, if you (or someone you know is alive) has this notation, please accept my humble apologies for the error! I would like to correct it — please let me know, either via email at, or by postal mail to Lawrence Kestenbaum, P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

The problem: in thousands of cases, I don't have any idea whether a person listed in my database and web site is living or dead. Sometimes, I have the year of birth, so I know how old they would be if they were living today; more often, I can only estimate the year of birth from their political activity. I have some year when I know for sure they were still living — often this is decades ago. And from their name, I have a pretty good idea about gender.

Statistically, with this information — specifically, age, sex, and years since last heard from — I can estimate the chances that the person is still living today, or to be more precise, as of their birthday this year. The National Center for Health Statistics publishes actuarial data (euphemistically called "life tables") which can be used to calculate the chances that a person with a given year of birth, who was last heard from as of a certain year, is still living now.

Of those whose death date or status is unknown, I consider them to be dead if they would be 110 years old or older as of this year's birthday (the life tables only go to age 110). Those younger than age 110, who have a nonzero but less than 5% chance of being alive this year, based on the life tables, are listed with the notation "presumed deceased". If the life tables show a 5% or greater chance that they are still alive, the notation is "still living as of 19XX" (the last year I have any record of them being alive).

For example, a woman born in 1902 who was definitely alive in in 1980 has a 2.54% chance of being alive this year (2003). If she was heard from in 1990, she has a 5.18% chance of being alive now. And if she was alive in 2000, she has a 70.37% chance of being alive as of her birthday this year.

If the year of birth is unknown, it gets a bit more complicated. By default, the estimated year of birth is 40 years before the person's first known political activity. Based on my data, that is the most likely number — but statistically it stands for a range of possibilities, that the person could have been born up to 40 years earlier, or up to 20 years later (i.e., he or she could have been any age from 20 to 80). The probabilities assigned to each of those years are based on my data for political figures with known years of birth.

For example, among people whose first and last activity on record was in 1950, a man who was known to be born in 1910 would have a 5.39% chance of being alive this year. If his year of birth was estimated as 1910 (i.e., he was born some time between 1870 and 1930), he would have a 10.76% probability of being alive today, based on the sum of the probabilities for each of those 61 possible years of birth.

Obviously in real life, each individual is either living or dead, and the percentage is meaningless. Real information is obviously preferable to statistical estimates. But every biographical compilation has to cope with this problem, and this approach is considerably less crude than most. It may look like a lot of trouble, but like most things in The Political Graveyard, it happens automatically because I wrote it into the programming.

What does "burial location unknown" mean? It doesn't necessarily mean that nobody in the world knows. All it means is that I don't have that information in my database. Since the number of politicians in my database has grown faster than the number for whom I have detailed information, there are — inevitably — a lot of entries with "burial location unknown."

If you happen to know the burial location for one of these, do send me mail! Specify the name and location of the cemetery, what your sources are, and whether or not you want your name to appear in the acknowledgements (below). Include basic biographical details if available, such as dates and locations of birth and death — or use the biographical checklist. And please be patient, because (due to the volume) it sometimes takes a long time for me to answer mail.

Do you accept suggestions of politicians to add to the database? Definitely! I do ask that people submitting names take the time to look over my biographical checklist and submission guidelines and include as many of these items as you have available. Please double-check to make sure you have dates right and everything spelled correctly. Send your information to me at or mail it to Lawrence Kestenbaum, P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor MI 48106. And please be patient — sometimes it takes me a while to catch up with all of my email.

Who cares about this stuff, anyway? I expected this data to be of the greatest interest to political history buffs, cemetery tourists and cemetery history researchers. The outpouring of interest by genealogists took me by surprise.

How are you alphabetizing the index? In general, I strive to make the site look and work more like a printed book than a crude computer printout. Accordingly, names like "St. Clair" are alphabetized as if the word "Saint" was spelled out. Embedded spaces in surnames are ignored, so variant names like "Van Dyke," "VanDyke," and "Vandyke" are all indexed together. Names beginning with Mc or Mac are not treated in any special way.

May I put a link to The Political Graveyard on my own page? Please do!

Do you have any advice for researching cemeteries? Probably the best place to do research on a specific cemetery, or those buried there, is at the cemetery's own office, since most organized cemeteries have a lot of records. If there isn't an office located at the cemetery grounds, it may be elsewhere, for example, at the house of the Secretary of the Board of Directors (if it's owned by a nonprofit cemetery corporation, say), at the church diocesean or regional office, or in a local government office. Note that cemeteries do change owners (and names!): a church cemetery may have become a township cemetery; a nonprofit cemetery could have been bought by a funeral business. Older records could well have ended up in a local or state library or archives.

Unfortunately, cemetery records of a hundred or more years ago may list only the names of the lot owners, not the individual burials, so don't get too excited until you have a chance to examine them.

Many local genealogical societies have transcribed the inscriptions on cemetery monuments; these can be found in local libraries. These lists are valuable because they preserve information when monuments later became illegible or were lost altogether. However, such transcriptions are not a complete list of those buried in a cemetery: there are always a lot of unmarked graves. And remember that anything written or printed (or carved in stone) can contain errors. Each time the information is copied by hand creates another opening for mistakes to creep in.

Beyond that, for the history of the cemetery itself, I'd suggest looking at old U.S. Geological Survey maps and aerial photos, Sanborn insurance maps, deeds and land records (most often available at the county courthouse). The state may also have interesting records of the original incorporation and annual reports. It can also be useful to inquire with long established funeral homes and monument companies.

Do you have any advice for researching politicians? For federal political figures, including members of Congress, judges, cabinet members, diplomats, signers of the Declaration of Independence, there are usually one or more biographical sources available through any significant research library. There are also at least two compilations of biographical sketches on governors. General sources such as Who's Who can also be useful.

Almost every state has some kind of biographical compilation of its major elected officials, including members of the state legislature. Ask at the reference desk of the state library, or at the state historical society. Don't forget to check microfilmed newspapers around the date of death for obituaries. It is also typical for state legislatures to pass memorial resolutions to observe the death of a former member, and these can contain valuable information.

If you have the time to research a specific figure in depth, the question you should ask the librarians is: "Where are his (or her) papers?" When a prominent public figure dies, all of the accumulated correspondence files and so on from a lifetime are often donated to a library or archives for access by historians. If you go, you may be overwhelmed by the sheer volume of material.

Who's in charge of and paying for this project? I am solely responsible for all of my web pages. Both my original (Intranet) and current (Paul Haas) hosts provided accounts to me to support my web projects, and I have created all my pages based on my own hobbies and interests. Though I myself am a political activist and county commissioner with strong views on many issues, I have tried to keep The Political Graveyard as nonpartisan (or at least impartial) as possible.

Who did the Political Graveyard logo? The artwork was done by Kate Darnell (Darnell Calligraphy and Illustration, East Lansing MI, phone 517 332 6733).

Who else helped out? The Political Graveyard would be vastly poorer without the dedicated work of the volunteer Research Associates and Advisory Committee: Louis Epstein, Davy Jones, Gaynell Kind, Gary Krause David Lotz, Jim Ford, and Jill M. Myers.

I also received invaluable support, encouragement and assistance on this project from: Robert B. Abbbott, Fred H. Abbott, John Abbott, Stephen Abbott, Matthew Abel, Bill Abrams, Terry C. Abrams, Jennifer J. Accavatti, Wyn Achenbaum, Carol Ackerman, Carolyn Adams, Christine Adams, Danny Adams, John Philip Adams, John R. Adams, Sr., John T. Adams, Judi Adams, Robert Adams, Robert Adams, Thomas Adams, Rosanne Adams-Junkins, Tim Adamsky, Beverly Foiw Addenbrooke, Doug Adkins, Truman Adkins, Mary Lou Adkisson, V. Harry Adrounie, John Agan, Bernard Agent, Greg Agnew, Fred Agree, Paul Ahee, Dennis Ahern, Jon Aho, Robert Aikin, John Aimers, Fred Ainslie, Flavia Alaya, Connie Albers, Lance Albers, Dennis Albert, John Albrecht, Evan J. Albright, Tom Alciere, Cliff Alderman, Jan Alderson, Victor E. Aldridge III, Eben Alexander, Jr., Gayl Alexander, Hooper 'Lex' Alexander, Janice Harrelson Alexander, Robert Alexander, Sandy Alexander, Virginia Alexander, Donald Alguire, Jane Allaby, Felecia B. Allen, Frances Ott Allen, John B. Allen, Lori Allen, Travis John Allen, Joyce Allen-Luopa, Gary Allin, Bill Allison, Jim Allison, M. L. Allison, Kirk Allmond, Juanita Alloway, Jessee Allread, A. Allsopp, Fred Almeida, Dennis L. Alonzo, Arnold S. Alperin, Alan Alsup, Jill Altaffer, Toni Alvarez, Bill Alward, Cheri Amarna, Nelson Ambridge, William Ambrose, Robert J. Ambrosini, Byron Ames, Charles Ames, Dave Ames, Sarah Lowry Ames, John N. Amir-Fazli, Judith Weeks Ancell, Jackson Andersen, Bob Anderson, Brenda Anderson, Charles L. W. Anderson, Dave & Linda Anderson, Eva Anderson, Joe Anderson, John A. Anderson, Marilyn Anderson, Mark William Anderson, Michael Owen Anderson, Norma Anderson, Otis Anderson, Patricia Anderson, Rik Anderson, Ross C. Anderson, Brian G. Andersson, Steve André, Ann Andrews, Jennifer Andrews, John W. Andrews, Ross Andrews, Jon Angeli, George Anikis, Ethan Anthony, Marc Anthony, Mitchell Anthony, John Anton, Tom Applebach, Alex Aragon, John Arant, Joseph L. Ardery, Judy Ardine, Duane Arends, John S. Arford, Peter Argersinger-Fries, Gretchen Withington Armato, Eladio Jose Armesto, Margarita Armijo, Theo Armour, Gladys Stovall Armstrong, Jean Armstrong, John Arnaud, Dale Arnett, Bonnie Arnold, C. Michael Arnold, Gail Arnone, Lelani Arris, Judith Kennedy Arthur, Kevin D. Arvin, Pattie Treakle Arwood, Elizabeth Asbjornson, Joan L. Asche, Richard E. Ascher, Don Aschermann, Jerry R. Aschermann, A. Scott Ashcraft, Robbie Ashe, Patricia Ashley, Nat Atkins, Ross Atkins, Reilly Atkinson III, Sara Atteberry, Jim Atwell, Elizabeth Atwood, Jean Atwood, Lawrence Auclair, Judith Auer, Michael Auleta, Cathy Aungst, Laurie Austin, Richard L. Austin, Barbara Avery, Carlos Avery, Dana Avery, Embele Awipi, Bruce H. Axler, Victoria Ayers, Azahidi Azaraai, Gwen Babcock, Joe Baber, Laurene Bach, Carolyn Bachan, John B. Bachman, Stephen W. Bachman, George Bacon, Win Keith Baer, Ted Bahr, April Fisk Bailey, Jeffrey R. Bailey, Judith Bailey, Judith L. Bailey, Ken & Sheila Bailey, Robert Bailey, Talley Bailey, Theresa Bailey, Jean Wieland Bails, Robert Bainbridge, Jr., Marilyn Baird, Susan E. Baird, Andy Baker, Bill Baker, Edward D. Baker, Elvin Baker, Jane Baker, Jill Baker, Lee Baker, Neil Baker, Paul T. Baker, Steven Baker, William & Sandra (Frampton) Baker, Jodi Baker-Harris, Linda Baldree, Frank Baldridge, Catherine A. Balduino, Hatty Baldwin, Joan Baldwin, Timothy Baldwin, Francesca Ball, Linda Ball, Sherman H. Ball, John Ballard, Juanita Ballard, Mike Ballard, Gerri Ballensky, Cheney Gazzam Baltz, Steve Baltzegar, Calvin Bandstra, Lowell Bankhead, Christopher James Banks, Michael W. Bannan, Grené Baranco, Covey B. Barbee, Wilson Barbee, Lucy Barber, Megan Coleman Barber, Mary Barden, James Bardwell, Paul Barfoot, Marsha Barg-Karp, Suzy Barile, David Barish, J. C. Barker, James H. Barker, David Barksdale, John F. Barlow, Stephanie Haberfelde Barnes, Timothy Barnes, John Barnhardt, Donna Barnickol, Reid M. Baron, Jay Barr, Bruno A. Barreiro, Lynne M. Barrelle, Ricardo Barrera, Bill Barrett, Deborah C. Barrett, Greta Barrett, Lisa Ashworth Barrett, Terry Barrett, Catherine Barrier, Meghan Barrow, Jamee Ewing Bartek, John Bartlett, Kathy Bartlett, Raymond V. Bartlett, Ruth Barton, Graham Bass, Horace Bass, Jeffrey Bassett, Stephen Bateman, Connie Bates, Cyndy Bates, David L. Bates, Marilyn Stough Bauer, Stephen B. Bauer, Judy Baugh, Otis L. Baughman III, Gene Baumann, Fred G. Baur, Greg Baxter, Alex Bay, Richard Beach, Lee Ann Beachell, Joey Beachum, Andrew Beal, H. L. Beam III, Tracy Beamish, Nathalie R. Bean, Scott Bean, Mike Beard, David Bearr, Sara Bearss, Pam Beasley, Thomas R. Beatty, Tom Beaty, Réjean Beaudoin, Paul Beaulieu, Jack R. Beaver, Lisa Becerra, Bonnie M. Beck, Darnell Marie Brunner Beck, Gregory Beck, Charles Zeller Becker, Margaret Lowery Becker, Ralph Becker, Michael Beechem, Andrew Beeson, Michele Behan, Margaret Behel, Aphra Behn, Lawrence Behr, D. Beiler, Fred Beisser, Michael Belgie, David Bell, Gary Wm. Bell, Jim Bell, Stephanie Bell, Tony Bell, Phil Bellfy, Kathryn Bellman, Spencer L. BeMent, Michele Bemis, David Benedetto, Brooks Benefiel, Mark Benerofe, Eileen Beneze, Dave Benham, Joseph Benjamin, Ann Bennett, John J. Bennett, Jr., Richard Bennett, Kathey Benoit, Callie Bensel, Carol Benson, Chris Benson, Daryl Benson, Jim Benson, Gordon B. Bent, Carol Bentley, Mike Berger, Art Bergeron, Carl Robert Berghult, Kathy Bergold, Mark Bergold, Lois Berkowitz, Susan Berkson, G. Berlin, Mila Eby Bernethy, Brett W. Berry, Brian Berry, Lawrence R. Berry, Sarah Berry, Skip Berryhill, Cheryl Berthelsen, Robert Betz, John Beutler, Bill Beuttel, Stu Bevis, Jason Bezis, Kerri E. Bianchi, Randy Bibb, Kenneth C. Bice, John Biddlecome, Carl Bierce, Scott Billigmeier, John G. 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Thompson, Nancy Thompson, Paula Dewey Thompson, Peter Thompson, Sandra Thompson, Charles Thomspon, Mark A. Thorburn, John Thornell, Charles Thornton, Clark Thornton, Emily Thornton, Mark Thornton, Sameera V. Thurmond, Angie Thut, Malcolm Thwaite, Eleanor Ticknor, Leslie Tidball, David Tiemann, Rosemary Tiernan, Denise Till, Margot Timberlake, Jim Timbrell, Michael E. Tinley, Robert Tinsley, Marti Tippens, Cheri Tipton, Elaine Tipton, Jim Tipton, Tina Tirsek, Lindsay Titus, Vicki Titus, Marilyn K. Tobey, Alison Tocci, Nora Tocus, Thomas W. Tolbert, Mary Toluchanian, John Toman, Emily Rachel Tompkins, John E. Toncray, Mark Toncray, Stephanie Toney, Carolyn Tonn, Angela Tooley, James R. Tootle, Mark Topolski, Ara Topouzian, Moira Topp, V. W. Torbert, Jane Barr Torres, Eric Torrison, Barbara Torsky, Michael Toth, Roy C. Towlen, Bill Townsend, Tony Townsend, L. Toy, Dallas B. Trammel, Thomas A. Trapani, Pawel Trawicki, Pam Trawinski, Katherine Traynham, Robert Trencheny, John Trezise, Barbara Trish, Wallace Latham Trolan, Jr., Jean True, Josh Truehart, Con Trumbull, Lynn Bedell Truslow, Vicki Truxton, Matt Trynoski, Joe R. Tucker, Bynum E. Tudor, Jr., Gale Tuper, Clark Pierson Turner, Joe Turner, Karen Turner, Marion Turner, Polli Turner, Sue Turner, Terry Turner, Joe Turpin, Norman E. Tutorow, Elbert P. Tuttle, Jr., Cindy Tyler, Gail Tyler, Vincent Tyndall, David B. Udall, Charlie Uhrig, David Fuller Ulrich, Carolyn Umble, Dierdre Uncapher, Anne Underwood, Jack Underwood, Fred Union, Greg L. Upchurch, Thomas Urban, Scott Urbanowski, David Francis Urrows, T. P. Uschanov, Steven Usdansky, Mark Usher, Karen Utter, Robert D. Utter, Wayne Uzzel, Harry C. Vaiden, Robert S. Vail III, Jeffrey Vaillant, John G. Valder, Larry Valterza, Janet Vance, John Vandall, Rachel VanDrake, Edward J. VanDyne, Kaye Vanfleet, Mark vanHudson, Richard VanOrman, Frances VanScoy, Bob VanWicklin, Dirk van_Allen, Daniel J. Van_Antwerp, George Van_Antwerp, Eugene P. Van_Arsdel, Sue van_den_Hoek, Mary Van_Deusen, Tom Van_Engen, Robert W. van_Hengel, Jim Van_Kennen, Laurence van_Kleek, John Van_Matre, Gilden R. Van_Norman, Marilyn Van_Pelt, Barbara R. Van_Riper, Annemarie van_Roessel, Dona Van_Voorst, Whittington Polk Vara, Ruth Varley, Paula Varrassi, M. Vaselaar, Ed Vaughan, Louis Veazey, Evelyn Velson, Keith Vennum, Keith B. Vennum, Martha Verchot, Christie Hamilton Verdonik, Larry Verhei, Jennie Vertrees, Victor L. Vesnaver, Beth L. Fellows Vetter, Penny Miramon Vicari, John Clifford Vickerman, Robert D. Vickers, Carlos Izzo Videla, James E. Vidrine, Bob Viguers, Bonnie Vincent, William R. Vincent, Greg Vine, V. Viner, Robert E. Vines, Paul Vitartas, George Vitt, James A. Vitullo, Dottie Vlcej, Karen Vockrodt, Catherine S. Vodrey, Brad Vogel, Evon Z. Vogt, Richard Voitier, Jane Kay Volkema, Hans-Joerg Volkmann, Tom Vondruska, Linda Darnell VonKossovsky, Mark von_Destinon, Alexis M. von_Zielinski, Dave Voorhees, Bonnie Vrchota, Jeanne Waddell, Jeffrey Waddell, Michael G. Waddell, Zach Waddicor, Will Wade, Case Wagenvood, Lawanna Waggy, Dale Wagner, Kevin B. Wagner, Richard Wagner, William Muhlenberg Wagner, Paulette Crabiel Wahler, Frank S. Waite, Matt Walcoff, Larry Walcutt, Brannon Walden, Sonna Waldron, Alex A. Waldrop, David C. Wales, Sister Patrice Wales, Alan Walker, B. Walker, Barbara Walker, Barbra Lang Walker, Bill Walker, Cathy Horton Walker, Cory Walker, Jim Walker, Joe Walker, Kelley Walker, Lori Walker, Maggi Walker, Max Walker, Michael Wingfield Walker, Richard Walker, Stuart Walker, Townsend Walker, Homer Walkup, Al Wall, Carter Wall, James Wall, Natasha Wall, Richard Wall, Virgil Wall, George Wallace, Marc Wallace, Michelle West Wallace, Paul S. Wallace, W. Peter Wallace, Lisa Wallerstein, John A. Wallsteadt, Kathleen Walseth, Anthony A. Walsh, Bob Walsh, Charles Walsh, Frank Frost Walsh, Kevin Walsh, Ralph Walsh, Justine Walter, Judith Allison Walters, Bill Waltman, Julia Ann Walton, Terry Walton, Thomas H. Walton, Terry Walz, Bob Wamble, Mark Wampler, Bob Ward, Craig Ward, David Ward, Lori Ward, Mary Ward, Patrick Ward, Paul Ward, Peter Ward, Rachel Ward, Robert Ward, Sam C. Ward, Chris Warden, Loretta Wardrip, Barbara Ware, Paul C. Warehall, Paul Warfel, Bill Warnell, Dennis E. Warnemunde, Richard Warner, Bill Warren, Charles Warren, George T. Warren II, Matt Warren, Patricia Nell Warren, Will Warren, Walter Wasacz, John W. Washabaugh, Dick Waskey, Tom Wasniewski, Sharon Wason, Dick Wasserstrom, Tom Waterman, Fenelon A. Waters, Barb Watson, Brande Watson, Don Watson, Michael Watson, Richard M. Watson, Carol Watt, William J. Watt, Jr., Mary Ashcraft Watts, Darrell Waugh, Elizabeth Rose O'Kon Waurzyniak, Paul M. Waxelbaum, Jim Waydula, Dick Weadock, Sondra Weaser, Bob Weaver, Patricia Tate Weaver, William Hall Weaver, Margery Webb, Nathaniel J. Webb III, D. Weber, Douglas Weber, Lynne Weber, Deborah Webster, Stephen Webster, Lucky Hart Weddigen, Robert Wedding, Mike Weddle, Nathan O. Weeks, Wayne Weeks, Carleton L. Weidemeyer, Michael Weinkrantz, Amanda Weisenberger, Daniel H. Weiskotten, Arnold R. Weiss, Jerry Weissman, Patricia Welch, Richard F. Welch, W. L. Welch, Warren Welch, Paul Welday, Teri Weldon, Christian Nathan Wells, Dean Wells, Jack T. Wells, James H. Wells, Joe Wells, Tim Wells, Wellington Wells III, Jackie Welsh, Susan Welsh, Phil Weltner, Barbara Sue Hedgcock Werner, Larry Wert, James D. West, Jeff West, Larry West, Mary West, Hollister West-Villanueva, Eve Westvik, Jameson Michael Wetmore, Richard Weyel, Paul Whalen, Emmett Whealan, Marc Wheat, Conner Wheatley, George Wheatley, Robert Wheaton, Henry Wheeler, Jan Wheeler, Julia Rivkin Wheeler, Kimberly A. Wheeler, Mary Beth Wheeler, Rachel Wheeler, Albert Keith Whitaker, Ann Whitchurch, Annette White, Elmer White, Eric Jon White II, Gary Evans White, Gaye Douglass White, Linda Disston White, Mark White, Matthew White, Peter White, Rebecca P. White, Sharon L. White, Sheri White, Jack Whited, Jack Whited, Alan Whitehead, Sandy Roberts Whitehead, Sheldon Whitehouse, Honey Whiting, Mike Whiting, Cheryl K. Whitlock, Warren Whitney, Patrick J. Whittle, U. C. Whittock, Upshur Whittock, J. M. Wice, Paul Wick, Whiting John Wicker, Linwood Wickett, Harry Widdows, Shelley Wiebe, Bernard Wieman, Wayne L. Wilber, Scott Wilburn, Ruth R. Wilcox, Will Wilcox, Lowell Wilde, Ellen Wilds, Mitch Wilds, Scott Wilds, D. Wildstein, Marsha Whited Wilgis, Mary Lou Wilhelm, Julia Wilk, Heather Wilke, Jim Wilke, Sue Wilken, Bill Wilkin, Gary Lee Wilkins, James K. Wilkins, Sally Wilkins, Catherine Perry Wilkinson, Gene C. Wilkinson, Harold Wilkinson, Whiting Russell Willauer, Jr., A. Harry Williams, Carolann Wells Williams, Claudia Williams, David Williams, Deborah Williams, Edward L. Williams, Gordon Williams, Homer Williams, Jeff Williams, Jeffrey Williams, John Williams, John Williams, John Williams, Julian Williams, Kathleen M. Williams, Keith Williams, Lewis Lanier Williams, Melissa Williams, Pat Williams, Robert Williams, Ron Williams, Steve Williams, Terri Williams, Thomas Williams, Todd Williams, Tracy E. Williams, Jr., Dorothy Strong Williamson, Lamar Williamson, Jr., Melissa Williamson, Ronald Williamson, Michael Williard, George C. Willick, Elaine Willier, Beth Wills, Carter L. Wilson III, Clifford E. Wilson, Dave Wilson, Diane Wilson, Donald E. Wilson, Eric Wilson, Greg Wilson, Jeff Wilson, Jim Wilson, Joyce Wilson, Kay Wilson, Pete Wilson, Philip S. Wilson, Roger A. Wilson, Ron Wilson, Venisa Wilson, Frank Wimberly, Paullette Wimberly, Thomas L. Wimberly, Kenneth Wimmel, Gip H. Winecoff III, Steven Winegardner, Robert Winfield, Andrew Wing, Raymond Wing, Barbara Walker Winge, Keith Winkler, Gail Winn, Keith Winstead, Belinda Winston, Jack Winston, Barbara Winters, R. D. Winthrop, Bruce Wisentaner, Barbara J. Wiser, Wendie Witherbee, Kay Withers, Brenton H. Witherspoon, Walt Witkowski, Gretchen Witt, Becky Wodek, Robert E. Wojtylo, Pam Wolak, Harvey Wolchan, Jerry Wolf, Christopher Wolfe, Peter R. Wolfe, Marc Wolin, Terry Hamilton Wollin, Conley Wolterman, Richard Wong, Richard L. Wong, Bucky Wood, Earl Wood, Kari Wood, Kay Wood, Nelson Wood, David Marcus Woodcock, Sue Woodford-Beals, Debra Woodman, George Woodmansee, Clifton A. Woodrum, Bruce L. Woods, Frederick T. Woods, S. Howard Woodson III, Chuck Woodward, Mac Woodward, Jim Woofter, Jennifer Wooleyhand, Eric Woolhiser, Kenneth Jennings Wooster, Kimberly A. Wootton-Egan, John Woram, Jim Word, Robert L. Worden, Charles S. Wright, 2nd, Doni Wright, Ginny Wright, Jay Wright, Patricia M. Wright, Steven L. Wright, Thomas E. Wright, Tom Wright, Jude Wudarczyk, Ken Wuschke, Daniel Wyatt, Frederica Burt Wyatt, Mary Anne Wyatt, Mary Kay Wyatt, Barbara Wyche, Paul Wyer, Stuart Wyeth, Austin L. Wyman, Bill Wynne, Brian Wynne, Vincent Wynne, Ed Wyszynski, David Yablonsky, Chuck Yanikoski, John Yarboro, Alan Reay Yarrow, Carol Yaster, Paul L. Yates, Robert L. Yates, Sarah Yates, Terry Yates, Jim Yedor, Kevin A. Yelvington, L. M. Yerkes, Neal R. Yerkes, Mark B. York, Sara Yoskin, Nicholas Yost, Andrew Young, Bob Young, Bonnie G. Young, Christopher P. Young, Jim Young, Melanie Young, Sue Young, William Young, Michelle Youngblood, Warren Zahler, Kevin Zak, Jay Zane, Wayne Zanni, William A. Zapp, Catherine Zaring, Lora Hudson Zatarain, Suzanne Chatigny Zazzi, Bob Zecker, Stan Zegel, Vivian E. Shore Zelvin, Marc Zenker, Glenn Zepp, Craig Zerbe, James Edgar Zerbi, Eugene Ziebach III, David L. Zielenziger, Jessica Zipper, Pat Zipper, Jennifer Zlomke, Mark Zovak, Emily Zurhellen, and many others who preferred to remain anonymous. To all of these, I am forever grateful.

The site itself and Internet connections are provided by Paul Haas.

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"Enjoy the hospitable entertainment of a political graveyard."
Henry L. Clinton, Apollo Hall, New York City, February 3, 1872
The Political

The Political Graveyard is a web site about U.S. political history and cemeteries. It is the Internet's most comprehensive free source for American political biography, listing 217,078 politicians, living and dead.

Site information: The Political Graveyard is created and maintained by Lawrence Kestenbaum, who is solely responsible for its structure and content. — Mailing address: P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor MI 48106. — The site is currently hosted by Hostmonster, but we remain grateful for a decade-plus with our former web host, Paul Haas, of Ypsilanti, Michigan. — The Political Graveyard opened on July 1, 1996; the last full revision was done on October 5, 2010.

Copyright notice: Facts are not subject to copyright; see Feist v. Rural Telephone. Original material, programming, selection and arrangement are © 1996-2010 Lawrence Kestenbaum. This work is also licensed for free non-commercial re-use, with attribution, under a Creative Commons License.

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